Saturday, November 26, 2016

The Flowers offerings

I pray to the Buddha with these flowers;
May this virtue be helpful for my emancipation;
Just as these flowers fade,
Our body will undergo decay.

In Buddhism, symbolic offerings are made to the Triple Gem, giving rise to contemplative gratitude and inspiration. The type of material offerings involve simple objects such as a lit candle or oil lamp, burning incense, flowers, food, fruit, water. 
Why we give offerings to the Enlightened ones -The Buddhas?
The  Buddhas and the Enlightened beings they do not requiring these kind of offerings. We make these offerings is for accumulation of merits and wisdoms, enlightenment, Buddha hood, is achieved through these great qualities - accumulation and purification. As we knew the Buddhas had limitless of qualities which were attained through these two mentioned qualities.

From the traditional of Buddhist framework of karma and rebirth, offerings also lead us to a better rebirth in the cycle of birth and death and progress towards release from suffering. We are offering the best of something or something affordable to the enlightened ones,  so that we can one day, aspire to attain liberation like the Buddhas, Bodhisattvas.
The act of offering is an act of Dana. An act of generosity to the:-
  1. Buddha himself – the Perfectly Enlightened One. 
  2. To the Dharma – the Truth. 
  3. To the Noble Enlightened Ones-the Great Compassion of Bodhisattvas.
In the Vajrayana and Mahayana traditions, flower offerings might be imbued with the following indications:-
Flowers are the most beautiful things in the world, we are offering the most beautiful things in the world to the Buddhas. When they fade, it is also a reminder those things of the world also fade,   it has reminded us of the teaching that “Whatever is of the nature to arise is also of the nature to cease”.  

Flowers represents the aspiration to achieve the body of the Buddha with the thirty-two marks of the Buddha as well as the teaching of impermanence.

From the sutra Distinguishing the Aspects of Karma (Lanam Je): There are ten benefits of offering flowers to the Buddhas, statues, stupas, scriptures, holy places and monastery. 
  1. One becomes like a flower in the world. (You will be very beautiful; everyone will be attracted and amazed to look at you and will remember seeing you.)
  2. The sense of smell will never degenerate. (Some people have sicknesses in the nose so that the sense of smell doesn’t function.)
  3. One will never have bad body odor. (This will be completely purified.)
  4. A smell of scented nectar will come from the body.
  5. The smell of the morality of the person will spread in all directions and corners.
  6. One will be a leader of the world. (One will be a leader of people, of the world, of holy beings.)
  7. One will achieve beautiful attractive things.
  8. One will have great wealth.
  9. One will be reborn in a higher rebirth.
  10. One will quickly achieve the sorrow less state and achieve enlightenment, the great liberation.
Thank you for reading, may you find peace and great bliss. With your support it helps to spread the Buddha’s precious teachings and turning the Dharma wheels in the world.

Aspiration For Bodhichitta
For those in whom the precious Bodhichitta has not arisen
May it arise and not decrease
But increase further and further.

Dedication of Merit
By this merit may we obtain omniscience then.
Having defeated the enemies wrong-doings.
May we liberate migratory from the ocean of existence.
With its stormy waves of birth, old age, sickness and death.

*Note
I do not own or infringe any copyright of these pictures.
Pictures courtesy and credit to the rightful distributors and or studios.
Pictures are intended for editorial use only.

Wednesday, November 23, 2016

The Fire Puja Offerings

There are three different types of fire-related pujas:-
  1. Smoke Offering (Sang)
  2. Smell Offering (Sur)
  3. Fire Offering (Jinsek)
Fire puja offerings are ritual offerings of smoke, smell and flaming made Offering to the Four Guests:-
  • First, to all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas throughout the ten directions (ordinate and cardinal directions plus above and below) and the three times (past, present and future) as well as to the Yidam deities of all the Mandalas.
  • Secondly, you are offering to the Dharmapalas, the Dharma protectors , wisdom Dakinis, and very high spiritual gods who protect the Dharma.
  • The third class of guests includes all sentient beings, particularly local worldly deities and elemental worldly spirits.
  • Finally, you are offering to hungry ghosts and to beings with whom you are karmically indebted.
The major principle of fire pujas is offering. One casts onto a fire and flame a dry powder of juniper, rhododendron, and other plants, mixed with the three white [milk, yogourt and butter] and the three sweets [honey, molasses and white sugar]. You put the food and whatever ingredients in the fire. As the fire burns it, it is totally consumed and in this way it is offered.
In the "Sang" - You are offering the smoke, in the "Sur" - You are offering the smell or scent 
In the "Jinsek" - You are offering fire itself, flame itself, and burning itself.  If one is making the sang and sur offerings, consistency is important as the guests for whom the offerings are made come to anticipate the ceremony. 

However, the inability to carry out the practice daily or even weekly should not dissuade one from making the offering as often as one is able. Also, it is always possible to make donations to the lamas at the monasteries, temple to carry out the practices on the behalf of yourself or others, including whatever prayers, puja you wish.
Smoke offerings (Sang) 
Sang is mainly dedicated to what is referred to as “elemental spirits”– the gods of the mountain, the gods of the sky, the gods of the river, and the gods of all aspects– and “local deities.” Though only seen through expansive and refined sense perceptions, we can experience these classes of beings through observing signs in the natural world including animals, features of the land, and weather patterns.  In addition to these particular guests, we also offer to the aforementioned “four guests”.



Where and when is Sang best offered

Sang is generally practiced in the daylight hours (usually before noon) and offered near one’s dwelling or on the top of a mountain. It can be offered anywhere that one wishes to renew and repair the connection with the elemental constituents of the area. 


The offering and intention create the causes and conditions for harmonious internally among the beings that inhabit the place, as well as externally in the environment itself. In this way, it can be an important step in the process of purifying gross and subtle levels of environmental pollution.  



The offering can also effect change in the experience of the beings that inhabit the place, for example, healing discord in one’s family or pacifying animals and pests.


What is offered
It is very important for the Sang offering to be clean. The offering of the short morning fire Puja can be quite small, a few teaspoons of the “sangdze” (Tibetan word literally means offering substance) is sufficient, though elaborate versions can consist of 10 or more large trays of heaped offerings along with beer and wine.  We then infinitely expand the offerings by visualizing them as billowing clouds that fill the extent of space.
What substance to offer
The offering substance, consists of a mixture of “the three white” and “the three sweet”
The three whites substances are  flour, butter, yogurt.
The three sweets substances are  sugar, molasses, and honey.
Other substances are included of incense, 5 colored cloths, medicine, alcohol, and precious stones or jewels. 

What not to offer
No onion, garlic, meat, or eggs. A minor eggs ingredient that has made in some baked goods can be allowed.
Smell or scent offering (Sur)
Is mainly dedicated to the unseen beings and spirits that including the hungry ghosts that with whom you have a karmic debts.

Where and when is Sur best offered
Offered in locations similar to those of Sang.
Typically offered in the afternoon or evening. 
Offerings and prayers are given on behalf of the deceased loved ones throughout the entire 49 days that they may exist in the intermediate Bardo state. It is a common practice among Tibetan Buddhists to make personal offerings for their deceased loved ones to relieve  from attachment to their previous existence and facilitate an auspicious rebirth.  
What is offered
It is ideally consists of all kinds of food and drink that beings desire, including meat and alcohol.  Vegetarian food will be ideally and a better way of offering. In this way one can practice compassion and Bodhichita by abstaining of killing and animals scarified.

As with any practice, the merit generated is multiplied by the number of people who participate in the chanting or donation of offerings.  Everyone is welcome to assist in the preparations of the fire and offerings. This can include procuring the wood as well as purchasing the food.
Fire offering ( Jinsek )
Fire Puja, or fire offering, is a ritual practice of offering into the fire, a ritual of generously burning offerings, using the fire element to accomplish an enlightened action quickly and powerfully. 
According to the secret Vajrayana teachings include the practice of Jinsek. Every item offered in burning Pujas is good for some purpose.
What substance to offer
By offerings grains pacify sickness and to give strength.
By offerings crepe grass to gain healthy long life.
By offerings Kusha grass to purify pollutions.
By offerings butter to gain wealth.

There are various substances that are offered to the deity during the fire Puja. Each mentioned substance has the potential power to affect your life. Like this, all the substances offered are to actualize different potentials and types of success.

There are four Jinseks of fire Pujas are performed to accomplish the enlightened activities. Each Jinsek is performed by a different lama and corresponds with specific colors, directions, times of day and energies.  The benefits of performing Jinseks, or even making a connection with them, are immense, both relatively and ultimately.
The four Jinseks practices 

1) Pacifying (Zhiway Jinsek in the morning)
"Heals imbalances of physical elements that result in sickness; removes negative energy for us personally and the world in general; pacifies karmic defilements of countless lifetimes and liberates us from unwanted circumstances."
2) Wrathful (Drakpo Jinsek in the evening )
"All enemies, obstructed and those who bring harm both to worldly life and the path of enlightenment are eliminated and liberated.

3) Magnetizing (Wang-gi Jinsek in the afternoon)
"Any worldly desirable qualities and glorious qualities of the Dharma path, such as meditative experience, realization and enlightened wisdom qualities are magnetized and brought under one's control."   

4) Enriching (Gyaybay Jinsek in the morning) 
"Longevity, merit, glory, wealth, splendor, powerful influence, fame, good reputation, wisdom and all enlightened qualities are enriched and expanded."

Generally, the burning Pujas are offered at the end of great nearing retreats, three-year retreats, or short retreats of the enlightened being deities. These retreats are done with mantra recitation that brings you closer to the deity. 

The fire Puja is offered to restore parts of the practice that were left out, or mantras that have been incorrectly recited or mixed up, performed with unclear concentration. It also generally purifies defilements and negative karma.

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Thank you for reading, may you find peace and great bliss. With your support it helps to spread the Buddha’s precious teachings and turning the Dharma wheels in the world.

Aspiration For Bodhichitta
For those in whom the precious Bodhichitta has not arisen
May it arise and not decrease
But increase further and further.

Dedication of Merit
By this merit may we obtain omniscience then.
Having defeated the enemies wrong-doings.
May we liberate migrators from the ocean of existence.
With its stormy waves of birth, old age, sickness and death.

*Note
I do not own or infringe any copyright of these pictures.
Pictures courtesy and credit to the rightful distributors and or studios.
Pictures are intended for editorial use only.

Thursday, November 17, 2016

The Sacred Universe of The Buddhas - Mandala

Mandalas in Tibet, within the tradition of Tantric Buddhism, are sacred geometric figures that represent the Universe according to the Vajrayana Buddhism. Mandalas have complex geometrical shapes and it has become a generic term for any diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically. 

The Mandala is also a part of Hindu Tantrism and in other traditions like North American Indians, but this article will only focus on the Buddhist Mandala. 

Mandala comes from Sanskrit meaning "circle." Even though it may be dominated by squares or triangles, a Mandala has a concentric structure. Mandalas are far more than geometical figures, however. For Tantric Buddhists, they are rich with symbolism and sacred meaning. In fact, the etymology of the word "Mandala" suggests not just a circle but a "container of essence."

A Mandala becomes a sacred area that serves as a receptable for deities and a collection point of universal forces. By mentally entering a Mandala and proceeding to its center, a person is symbolically guided through the cosmos to the essence of reality.

In Tibetan Buddhism, contemplation of sacred images is central to religious ritual, and a Mandala is one of the most important of these sacred images. A Tibetan Mandala is usually made with careful placement of colored sand, and accordingly is known in Tibetan as "dul-tson-kyil-khor", or Mandala of the colored powders. 

The symbolism of Mandala  in the tradition of Vajrayana Buddhism, Mandalas are rich with symbolism that evokes various aspects of Buddhist teaching. This is part of what makes the creation of a Mandala a sacred act, for as they work, the monks are imparting the Buddha's teachings. In the Tibetan Buddhism, Mandalas have been developed into a sandpainting. They are also a key part of * Anuttarayoga Tantra meditation practices. 
* Anuttarayoga Tantra or Highest Yoga Tantra is a term used in Tibetan Buddhism.  In accorance with the three lineages of Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug of Tibetan Buddhism, Anuttarayoga Tantra is the highest of four classes and is associated with the route to enlightenment.  

Nyingma tradition and the teachings of Dzongchen or the Great perfection is the Highest Tantra. Nyingma lineage is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, and founded by the great Indian master of Guru Rinpoche, Padmasambhava who came to Tibet in the eighth century C.E.

Footnote
The practice of Anuttarayoga Tantra in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism is characterized by the requirement of empowerment from a qualified Guru, Lama, use of ritual techniques, and the practice of various meditative and subtle body yogas, to effect personal transformation and to attain enlightenment through the realization of the mindstream as a Meditational Deity, or a Yidam. Mandalas have complex geometrical shapes and are often used for meditation. 

For more teachings of the Tantra, please visit and click here
Construction of the sacred Mandala
The basic form of most Mandala is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point. Each gate is in the general shape of a "T".  The process of constructing a Mandala is a sacred ritual. It is a meditative, painstaking process that can take days or even weeks to complete. Before a monk may participate in the construction of a Mandala, he must undergo a lengthy period of artistic and philosophical study. 

Commonly , there are four monks are working together to construct a Mandala. The mandala is divided into quadrants with one monk assigned to each. Midway through the process, each monk receives an assistant who helps fill in the colors while the primary monk continues to work on detailed outlines.

Mandalas are constructed from the center outward, beginning with a dot in the center. With the placement of the center dot, the mandala is consecrated to a partcular Buddha or Deity. This Buddha or Deity will usually be depicted in an image over the center dot, although some Mandalas are purely geometric.
The symbolizes of the sacred Mandala
Lines are then drawn through the center dot to the four corners, creating triangular geometric patterns. These lines are then used to construct a square "palace" with four gates. The monks usually keep to their own quadrant at this point.
From the inner square, the monks move outward to a series of concentric circles. Here the monks work in tandem, moving all around the mandala. They wait until each section is entirely completed before moving outward together. This ensures that balance is always maintained.
Outside the square temple are several concentric circles. The outermost circle is usually decorated with stylized scrollwork resembling a ring of fire. This ring of fire symbolizes the process of transformation humans must undergo before being able to enter the sacred territory within. It both bars the unitiated and symbolizes the burning of ignorance.
The next circle inward is a ring of thunderbolt or diamond scepters, which stands for indestructability and illumination. This is followed by a circle of eight graveyards, representing the eight aspects of human consciousness that bind a person to the cycle of rebirth. Finally, the innermost ring is made of lotus leaves, signifying religious rebirth.
The square structure in the middle of a mandala is a palace for the resident deities and a temple containing the essence of the Buddha. The square temple's four elaborate gates symbolize a variety of ideas, including:
- The four boundless thoughts: loving-kindness, compassion, sympathy and equanimity
- The four directions: south, north, east and west
The Five Dhyani Buddhas Mandala
Within the square palace or temple are images of deities, which are usually the * Five Dhyani Buddhas (the Great Buddhas of Wisdom). The iconography of these Buddhas are rich in symbolism in itself. Each of the Five Dyani Buddhas represents a direction (center, south, north, east and west), cosmic element (like form and consciousness), earthly element (ether, air, water, earth and fire), and a particular type of wisdom. 

Each Buddha is empowered to overcome a particular evil, such as ignorance, envy or hatred. The Five Dyani Buddhas are generally identical in appearance, but are each represented iconographically with a particular color, mudra (hand gesture), and animal. See the article on the Five Dyani Buddhas for more information.


In the center of the mandala is an image of the chief Buddha or Deity, who is placed over the center dot described above. Because it has no dimensions, the center dot represents the seed or center of the universe. 
*For more detailed of the Five Dhyani Buddhas, please visit our article as follows:-
http://max-tibetanbuddhism.blogspot.my/search?q=Dhyani+Buddhas+
The Destruction of The San Mandala
Although some Mandalas are painted and serve as an enduring object of contemplation, the traditional Tibetan sand Mandala, when completed, is deliberately destroyed. The destruction of a sand mandala is also highly ceremonial. Even the Deity syllables are removed in a specific order along with the rest of the geometry until at last the mandala has been dismantled. 
The sand is collected in a jar which is then wrapped in silk and transported to a river (or any place with moving water), where it is released back into nature. This symbolizes the ephemerality of life and the world.

Thank you for reading, may you find peace and great bliss. With your support it helps to spread the Buddha’s precious teachings and turning the Dharma wheels in the world.

Aspiration For Bodhichitta
For those in whom the precious Bodhichitta has not arisen
May it arise and not decrease
But increase further and further.

Dedication of Merit
By this merit may we obtain omniscience then.
Having defeated the enemies wrong-doings.
May we liberate migrators from the ocean of existence.
With its stormy waves of birth, old age, sickness and death.

*Note
I do not own or infringe any copyright of these pictures.
Pictures courtesy and credit to the rightful distributors and or studios.
Pictures are intended for editorial use only.








Tuesday, November 15, 2016

Auspicious and inauspicious numbers in Tibetan Culture.

Numbers have different meanings in different cultures, especially the Chinese, the number of 3, 6, 8, 9 are always the most favorable numbers and the Chinese had embraced it, adopted it and even applying in their daily lives. The Chinese believed these numbers have the auspicious meanings that can bring favorable results for success, prosperity, wealth and good health.

What about the Tibetan culture and belief? Is there any auspicious or inauspicious numbers that had massively influenced the Tibetan ways of life, culture and religions?  Of course, they are. For instance, 13 is a lucky and holy number for Tibetan people.

In Tibetan culture, the odd numbers are always regarded as an auspicious number by local Tibetans. "6" may well be considered as a lucky number as number that multiple of "3". Tibetans would always deal with some important matters or travel to some place far from home on odd days, while even numbers are taboo. All these instances show that the principle of adoring odd numbers and regarding even numbers as taboo is always adhered to during any activities in Tibet.
As for the Tibetan people view odd numbers as lucky ones, herdsmen will choose a date with odd numbers in the first half of every month to assemble, set off on their journeys, and hold all other important events with the hope of safety.  Horse racing and archery have been popular for over a thousand years in Tibet. In the Tibetan horse racing, only thirteen runners in the front will can get a prize.

Losar is the Tibetan new year,  it is customary or commonly practiced by the local would present gifts for their love ones, and in the monasteries, would present gifts to the Rinpoches, Tulkus and lamas. According to the Tibetan culture, If anyone is buying or presenting gifts to the Tibetan people, the gifts will or should not be in an even number, but instead it should be the odd numbers.
Odd Numbers Symbolizes In The Tibetan Culture
No. 3   - Symbolize the sun, moon and star. 
            - The universe is divided into the celestial realm, the Human realm and the Hell                            realm. 
            -  Connecting to the three Longevity Amitayus Buddha, Ushnisha Vijaya and White                      Tara.
            -  Body, speech and mind in Tibetan Buddhism.

No. 9   - Literally means everlasting or endless.
             - Is customary of the Tibetan people would always clink their glasses and drink 9                        glasses of wine once a clinking is proposed. 
                 - Only the silver bowls or dragon bowls can be used as drinking vessels in Tibet. In                     addition, ghee must be dipped on three spots in the bowls for good luck.

No.13  - Is an auspicious and holy number for the Tibetan culture. 
             -13 desireless celestial realms or pure lands to be reborn according to the Gelupa                      lineage of Vajrayana Buddhism. 
            -  Prigrims will perform kola or walk 13 clockwise rounds the Sacred Mountains of                      Tibet for purification and removing of negativity and obstacles.
            
Thank you for reading, may you find peace and great bliss. With your support it helps to spread the Buddha’s precious teachings and turning the Dharma wheels in the world.

Aspiration For Bodhichitta
For those in whom the precious Bodhichitta has not arisen
May it arise and not decrease
But increase further and further.

Dedication of Merit
By this merit may we obtain omniscience then.
Having defeated the enemies wrong-doings.
May we liberate migrators from the ocean of existence.
With its stormy waves of birth, old age, sickness and death.

*Note
I do not own or infringe any copyright of these pictures.
Pictures courtesy and credit to the rightful distributors and or studios.
Pictures are intended for editorial use only.

Monday, November 14, 2016

The 48 Great Vows of Amitabha Buddha

"If you wish to come and be born in my realm, you must always recite my sacred mantra again and again, you must always keep this thought in mind without letting up, and thus you will succeed in coming to be born in my realm. 
If my 48 Great Vows do not come to pass, may I not attain my enlightenment".
Amithabha Buddha 48 Great Vows

The Tibetan word of "Dewachen" literally means the celestial mandala or the Amithabha Buddha pure land, and in Sanskrit name is Sukhavati and in Chinese is 西方極樂淨土. The Sacred Pure Land of Amitabha Buddha was delivered by Shakyamuni Buddha at the Vulture Peak in Rajagriha, India.
Amithabha  Buddha 南無阿彌陀佛 he is represents the Padma Lotus family. Amitābha means "Infinite Light" so Amitābha is also called "The Buddha of Immeasurable Life and Light".

He is the Buddha of the West direction.
His Mantra is " OM AMI DEVA HRIH " 
His Mantra in Chinese is " 南無阿彌陀佛 " 
His syllable is "Hrih" 
His color is in red.
His element is signifies or represents fire 
His symbolism is the Lotus.
His wisdom is signifies as Inquisitive and the wisdom of observation.
His hands mudras are signify as Meditation.
He is symbolizes or associated with summer season.
His consort is Pandara.
His Dhyani Bodhisattva is Avalokiteshvara.
His Pure Land is called Sukhavati, the Western Pure Land.

The 48 Great Vows of Amitabha Buddha 
When Buddha Amitabha was still a Bodhisattva, by the name of Dharmakara, He had made the following 48 Bodhisattva vows:-
  1. If, when I attain Buddhahood, should there be in my land a hell, a realm of hungry spirits or a realm of animals, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  2. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should after death fall again into the three evil realms, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  3. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should not all be the colour of pure gold, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  4. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should not all be of one appearance, and should there be any difference in beauty, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  5. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should not remember all their previous lives, not knowing at least the events which occurred during the previous hundred thousand kotis of nayutas of kalpas, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  6. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should not possess the divine eye of seeing at least a hundred thousand kotis of nayutas of Buddha-lands, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  7. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should not possess the divine ear of hearing the teachings of at least a hundred thousand kotis of nayutas of Buddhas and should not remember all of them, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  8. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should not possess the faculty of knowing the thoughts of others, even those of all sentient beings living in a hundred thousand kotis of nayutas of Buddha-lands, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  9. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should not possess the supernatural power of travelling anywhere in one instant, even beyond a hundred thousand kotis of nayutas of Buddha-lands, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  10. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should give rise to thoughts of self-attachment, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  11. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should not dwell in the Definitely Assured State and unfailingly reach Nirvana, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  12. If, when I attain Buddhahood, my light should be limited, unable to illuminate even a hundred thousand kotis of nayutas of Buddha-lands, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  13. If, when I attain Buddhahood, my life-span should be limited, even to the extent of a hundred thousand kotis of nayutas of kalpas, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  14. If, when I attain Buddhahood, the number of the shravakas in my land could be known, even if all the beings and pratyekabuddhas living in this universe of a thousand million worlds should count them during a hundred thousand kalpas, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  15. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should have limited life-spans, except when they wish to shorten them in accordance with their previous vows, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  16. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should even hear of any wrongdoing, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  17. If, when I attain Buddhahood, innumerable Buddhas in the land of the ten directions should not all praise and glorify my Name, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  18. If, when I attain Buddhahood, sentient beings in the lands of the ten directions who sincerely and joyfully entrust themselves to me, aspire to be born in my land, and call my Name even ten times, should not be born there, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment. Excluded, however, are those who commit the five gravest offences and abuse the right Dharma.
  19. If, when I attain Buddhahood, sentient beings in the lands of the ten directions, who awaken aspiration for Enlightenment, do various meritorious deeds and sincerely desire to be born in my land, should not, at their death, see me appear before them surrounded by a multitude of sages, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  20. If, when I attain Buddhahood, sentient beings in the lands of the ten directions who, having heard my Name, concentrate their thoughts on my land, do various meritorious deeds and sincerely transfer their merits towards my land with a desire to be born there, should not eventually fulfil their aspiration, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  21. If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should not all be endowed with the thirty-two physical characteristics of a Great Man, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  22. If, when I attain Buddhahood, bodhisattvas in the Buddha-lands of other directions who visit my land should not ultimately and unfailingly reach the Stage of Becoming a Buddha after One More Life, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment. Excepted are those who wish to teach and guide sentient beings in accordance with their original vows. For they wear the armour of great vows, accumulate merits, deliver all beings from birth-and-death, visit Buddha-lands to perform the bodhisattva practices, make offerings to Buddhas, Tathagatas, throughout the ten directions, enlighten uncountable sentient beings as numerous as the sands of the River Ganges, and establish them in the highest, perfect Enlightenment. Such bodhisattvas transcend the course of practice of the ordinary bodhisattva stages and actually cultivate the virtues of Samantabhadra.
  23. If, when I attain Buddhahood, bodhisattvas in my land, who would make offerings to Buddhas through my divine power, should not be able to reach immeasurable and innumerable kotis of nayutas of Buddha-lands in the short time it takes to eat a meal, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.
  24. If, when I attain Buddhahood, bodhisattvas in my land should not be able, as they wish, to perform meritorious acts of worshipping the Buddhas with the offerings of their choice, may I not attain perfect Enlightenment.